The Effect of Bullying on Depression, Academic Activity, and Communication in Adolescents in Surakarta: A Multilevel Logistic Regression

Kiyat Sudrajad, RB Soemanto, Hanung Prasetya

Abstract

Background: Human interaction requires com­munication as a transmission of informa­tion, ideas, emotions, skills, and so on. Com­mu­nica­tion occurs when a source conveys a message to the recipient with a conscious in­ten­tion to influ­ence the recipient's behavior. One of the pro­blems in social communication is bully­ing. Bully­ing or harassment can be through words or through actions that aim to make the opponent's mental fall and pressure. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that influence bullying against depres­sion with the Health Belief Model and Social Cognitive Theory.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sectio­nal study conducted in junior high schools in Surakarta, in December 2019. A total sample of 250 adolescents was selected by simple random sampling. The dependent variable was bullying. The inde­pen­dent variables were perceived sus­ceptibility, perceived severity, cues to action, perceived threat, perceived benefit, perceived barrier, self-efficacy, depres­sion, academic activi­ties, and communication. The data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed by a multiple multilevel logistic regres­sion run on Stata 13.

Results: Bullying increased depression (b= 3.69; 95% CI= 1.51 to 9.00; p= 0.004) and poor communication (b= 4.95; 95% CI= 2.24 to 10.89; p <0.001). Bullying decreased academic achievement (b= - 5.68; 95% CI= -12.33 to -2.62; p<0.001). School had strong contextual effect on depression with ICC= ICC= 20.91%.

Conclusion: Bullying increases depression and poor communication. Bullying decreases academic achievement. School has strong con­textual effect on depression.

Keywords: bullying, depression, Health Belief Model, Social Cognitive Theory

Correspondence: Kiyat Sudrajad. Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Su­ta­mi 36 A, Surakarta, 57126, Central Java. Ema­il­: kiyatrambo­@gmail.com. Mobile: +628­5­6­47­1­16834.

Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior (2020), 05(02): 79-86
https://doi.org/10.26911/thejhpb.2020.05.02.02

Full Text:

PDF

References

Bandura A (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 8(4): 191-215. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0033295X.84.2.191


Barker (1987). The Social Work Dictionary, dalam Abu Huraerah, 2007, Child Abuse (kekerasan terhadap anak), Bandung: NUANSA.


Baron, Robert A, Byrne D (2002). Social psychology understanding human Interaction. Boston: Allyn Bacon


Bogdan R, Taylor JS (2007). Metodologi penelitian kualitatif (Qualitative research methodology). Bandung: Remaja rosda karya.


Alderman, Kay M (2004). Motivation for Achievement: Possibilities for Teaching and Learning. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Fekkes M, Pijpers FIM, Verloove, Vanhorick SP (2005). Bullying: who does what, when and where? Invotment of children, teachers, and parents in bullying behavior. Health Education Research, 20(1): 81-91. https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyg100


Hutomo L (2017). Hubungan antara penyesesusaian akademik dengan prestasi belajar pada mahasiswa tahun pertama (The relationship between academic adjustment and learning achievement in first year students). Skripsi. Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Surabaya.


Hobfoll SE (1989). Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American Psychologist, 44(3): 513-524. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003066x.44.3.513


Kamran A, Ahari AS, Biria M, Malepour A, Heydari H (2014). Determinants of patient's adherence to hypertension medications: Application of health belief model among rural patients. Ann Med Health Sci Res. 4(6): 922–927. https://dx.doi.org/10.4103%2F21419248.144914.


Larki A, Tahmasebi R, Reisi M (2018). Factors predicting self-care behaviors among low health literacy hypertensive patients based on health belief model in Bushehr District, South of Iran. Int J Hypertens. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9752736


Malkoç A, Mutlu AK (2018). Academic self-efficacy and academic procrastination: Exploring the mediating role of academic motivation in Turkish University Students. Univers J Educ Res. 6(10): 2087-2093. https://doi.org/10.13189/ujer.2018.061005


Mulyana D (2013). Ilmu komunikasi: Suatu pengantar (Communication: An introduction). Cetakan ke 18. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya.


National Institute of Mental Health (2010). Depression and College Students. NIMH: 1-8


Obirikorang Y, Obirikorang C, Acheampong E, Anto EO, Gyamfi D, Segbefia SP, Boateng MO, et al. (2018). Predictors of noncompliance to antihypertensive therapy among hypertensive patients Ghana: Application of health belief model. Int J Hypertens. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4701097


Papanikolaou M, Chatzikosma T, Kleio K (2011). Bullying at School: The role of family. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 29: 433-442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.260


Rigby K (2007). Bullying in school: and what to do about It. Australia: Acer Press. Retrieved from http://libgen.org/book/index.php


Rosenstock IM, Strecher VJ, Becker MH (1988). Social Learning Theory and The Health Belief Model. Health Educ Q. 15(2): 175-183. https://doi.org/10.1177/109019818801500203


Rutter M (1985). Family and school influences on behavioural developments. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 26(3):349-68. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1985.tb01938.x


Salehi S, Ahmed Patel A, Taghavi M, Pooravari M (2016). Primary school teachers and parents perception of peer bullying among children in Iran: A qualitative study. Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 10 (3): e1865. https://dx.doi.org/10.17795/ijpbs1865


Sugijokanto S (2014). Cegah Kekerasan Pada Anak (Prevent Violence in Children). Jakarta: Kompas Gramedia PT Elex Media Komputindo.


Tarkang EE, Zotor FB (2015). Application of the Health Belief Model (HBM) in HIV Prevention: A Literature Review. Central African Journal of Public Health. 1(1): 1-8. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/download/38927666/10.11648.j.cajph.20150101.11.pdf


Tsitsika AK, Barlou E, Andrie E, Dimitropoulou C, Tzavela EC, Janikian M, Tsolia M (2014). Bullying behaviors in children and adolescents: “An ongoing story”. Front Public Health. 2: 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2014.00007


Uchida A, Michael RB, Mori K (2018). An induced successful performance enhances student self-efficacy and boosts academic achievement. 4(4): 1-9. Am Educ Res Assoc. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2332858418806198


van Harmelen AL, Gibson JL, St Clair MC, Owens M, Brodbeck J, Dunn V, Lewis G, et al. (2016). Friendships and family support reduce subsequent depressive symptoms in at risk adolescents. PLoS ONE 11(5): e0153715. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.015371

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.