Biopsychosocial Determinants of Dental and Oral Health Behavior in Elementary School Children in Ponorogo, Indonesia: Application of Health Belief Model

Fahma Widya Kusumawardhani

Abstract

Background: Based on Basic Health Research in 2018, the proper brushing teeth behavior in children in Indonesia was 2.8%. The Elementary School period is an important stage for develop­ing the behavior of maintaining den­tal and oral health in children (students). This stu­dy aim­ed to analyze the bio psychosocial de­ter­­­mi­­nants of the behavior of maintaining den­tal and oral health in elementary school children in Ponorogo by implementing the theory of Health Belief Model.

Subjects and Method: This was a cross-sec­tio­nal study conducted in Pono­rogo, East Java, Indonesia, from January to Feb­­ruary 2020. A sample of 200 students from 25 elementary schools was selected by simple random sampling. The dependent vari­able was dental and oral health behavior. The independent variables were know­­­ledge, teacher’s role, attitude, perceived sus­cep­tibility, perceived seriousness, perceived be­ne­fit, perceived barrier, cues to action, self-effi­cacy, and school. The data were co­ll­e­c­t­­ed by questionnaire. The data were analyz­ed by a multilevel multiple logistic regression run on Stata 13.

Results: Dental and oral health behavior in elementary school students in­creas­ed with good knowledge (OR= 8.73; 95% CI­= ­­2.18 to 34.95; p= 0.002), strong teacher’s role (OR= 3.99; 95% CI= 1.17 to 13.65; p= 0.027), posi­tive attitude (OR= 6.45; 95% CI= 1.73 to 24.04; p=­ 0.­005), strong perceived susceptibility (OR= 7.81; 95% CI= 2.12 to 28.78; p= 0.011), high perceived seri­ousness (OR= 6.62; 95% CI= 1.93 to 22.69; p= 0.003), weak perceived barrier (OR= 0.18; 95%­ CI= 0.05 to 0.72; p = 0.015), big perceived be­nefit (OR= 7.78; 95% CI= 1.80 to 33.56; p= 0.­006), strong cues to action (OR= 3.95; 95% CI= 1.12 to 13.91; p= 0.032), and strong self-efficacy (OR­=­ 4.­99; 95% CI= 1.38 to 18.05; p=0.014 ). Elementary schools had contextual effect on the dental and oral health be­ha­vi­or with ICC= 14.14%.

Conclusion: The behavior of maintaining den­tal and oral health in elementary school students is affected by good knowledge, strong teacher’s role, high perceived susceptibility, high perceived serious­ness, weak perceived barrier, big per­ceiv­ed benefit, high cues to action, and strong self-effi­cacy. The school has a contextual effect on the be­haviour of maintaining dental and oral health in students.

Keywords: the behaviour of maintaining dental health, health belief model.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Al-Qahtani S, Razak P, Khan S (2020) Knowledge and practice of preventive measures for oral health care among male intermediate schoolchildren in abha, Saudi Arabia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 17(3). doi: 10.3390/ijerph17030703.


Al-Subait A, Alousaimi M, Geeverghese A, Ali A, Metwally A (2015). Oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior among students of age 10-18 years old attending Jenadriyah festival Riyadh: a cross-sectional study. Saudi J. Oral. Dent. Res. 7(1): 45–50. doi: 10.1016/j.sj-dr.2015.05.001


Ashoori F, Karimi M, Mokarami H dan Seif M (2019). Using health belief model to predict oral health behaviors in girl students: A structural equation modeling. Pediatr. Dent. J. doi: 10.1016/j.pdj.2019.12.001


Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Ponorogo (2017). Profil Kesehatan Kabupaten Ponorogo tahun 2016. Ponorogo: Dinkes Ponorogo.


Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Ponorogo (2019). Profil Kesehatan Kabupaten Ponorogo tahun 2018. Ponorogo: Dinkes Ponorogo.


Eden E, Akyildiz M, Sonmez I (2018). Comparison of two school-based oral health education programs in 9-year-old children. Int Q Community Health Educ. 39(3): 189–196. doi:10.1177/0272684X18819980.


Ghaffari M, Rakhshanderou S, Ramezankhani A, Noroozi M, Armoon B (2018). Exploration of brushing behavior among university students in Iran: A qualitative research. Int J Adolesc Med Health. doi: 10.1515/ijamh-2017-0115


Goodarzi A, Heidarnia A, Tavafian S, Eslami M (2017). Measurement of health belief model constructs in relation with the oral health practice of female students in Tehran. J Educ Health Promot. 5(4): 25–37. Retrieved from https://www.semanticscholar.org


Goodarzi A, Heidarnia A, Tavafian S, Eslami M (2019). Predicting oral health behaviors among Iranian students by using health belief model. J Educ Health Promot. 8(10). doi: 10.4103-/jehp.jehp_10_18


Hurlock (2011). Psikologi perkembangan :suatu pendekatan sepanjang rentang kehidupan. Edisi ke-5. Edited by I. Soedjarwo &. Jakarta: Erlangga.


Inglehart M, Zuzo G, Wilson J (2017). Kindergarten/Elementary School Teachers and Web-based Oral Health-Related Resources: An Exploration. Oral Health Prev Dent. 15(3): 229-236. doi: 10.3290/j.ohpd.a38159.


Kementerian Kesehatan (2009). Undang-Undang No. 36 Tahun 2009. Jakarta: Indonesia.


Kementerian Kesehatan (2018). Hasil utama laporan riskesdas 2018. Jakarta: Badan penelitian dan pengembangan kesehatan departemen kesehatan republik indonesia.


Leary S, Do L (2019). Changes in oral health behaviours between childhood and adolescence: Findings from a UK cohort study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1–7. doi: 10.1111/cdoe.-12475.


Lee C, Ting C, Wu J, Lee K, Chen H dan Chang Y (2017). Dental visiting behaviours among primary schoolchildren: Application of the health belief model. Int J Dent Hyg. 16(2): 88–95. doi: 10.1111/idh.12319.


López-Núñez B, Aleksejūnienė J, Villanueva-Vilchis M (2019). School-based dental education for improving oral self-care in mexican elementary school–aged children. Health Promot Pract. 20(5): 684–696. doi: 10.1177/1524839919840342.


Murti B (2016). Riset epidemiologi. Surakarta: UNS Press.


Murti B (2018). Teori promosi dan perilaku kesehatan. Surakarta: Pascasarjana Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat UNS.


Peyman N, Porhaji F (2015). The effects of educational program based on the health belief model on the oral health behaviors of elementary school students. Mod Care J. 12(2):74-78.


Priyoto (2015) Perubahan dalam perilaku kesehatan. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu.


Rahmati-najarkolaei F, Rahnama P, Fesharaki M, Yahaghi H (2016). Determinants of dental health behaviors of iranian students based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). Shiraz E Medical Journal. 17: 7-8. doi: 10.17795/semj39268.


Sariningsih (2012). Merawat gigi anak sejak dini. Jakarta: PT.Gramedia.


Vahid N, Hamid A, Mahbobeh S, Masoumeh S, Mahmood K (2019). The effect of oral health promotion program on early dental decay in students: A cluster randomized controlled trial. J Caring Sci. 8(2): 105–110. doi: 10.15171/jcs.2019.015.


Wahengbam P, Kshetrimayum N, Wahengbam B, Nandkeoliar T, Lyngdoh D (2016). Assessment of oral health knowledge, attitude and self-care practice among adolescents - A state wide cross-sectional study in Manipur, North Eastern India. J Clin Diagn Res. 10(6): 65-70. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/20693.8002


WHO (2016). Kasus Karies pada Anak Balita. Retrieved from https://health.kompas.com

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.