Effect of Personal Factors, Family Support, Pocket Money, and Peer Group, on Smoking Behavior in Adolescents in Surakarta, Central Java


  • Ardiansyah Pandayu Masters Program in Public Health, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta
  • Bhisma Murti
  • Pawito - Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta


Background: According to WHO and Global Youth Tobacco Survey, Indonesia is the third largest country with current smokers in the world, including young smokers. It is widely known that smoking is hazardous  to health and detrimental to economy. Surakarta is one of the major cities in Central Java where the prevalence of current smokers has been increasing among adolescents. This study aimed to determine the effect of personal factors, family support, pocket money, and  peer group, on smoking behavior in adolescents in Surakarta, Central Java.

Subjects and Method: This was an analytic observational study using cross-sectional design. This study was carried out in 5 sub-districts in Surakarta, Central java, from February to March 2017. A sample of 50 adolescent smokers and 150 adolescent non-smokers was selected for this study by fixed disease sam­pling. The dependent variable was current smoking status. The independent variables were cigarette availability, peer-group, family support, pocket money, cigarette advertisement, attitude toward smoking, subjective norm, perceived preventive behavioral control, and intention. The data were collected by a set of questionnaire. The data were analyzed by path analysis.

Results: Smoking behavior was affected  by strong intention (b= 3.7; 95% CI=2.5 to 4.9; p<0.001), and  weak perceived behavioral control (b=3.1; 95% CI= 1.7 to 4.5; p<0.001). Intention to smoke was affected by weak perceived preventive behavioral control (b= 2.1; 95% CI= 1.1 to 3.2; p<0.001), weak preventive subjective norm (b= 1.8; 95% CI= 0.7 to 2.9; p= 0.001), negative attitude (b= 1.9; 95% CI= 0.8 to 2.9; p<0.001), and exposure to cigarette advertisement (b= 1.6; 95% CI= 0.5 to 2.6; p= 0.004). Weak perceived preventive behavioral control was affected by pocket money ≥ Rp 10.000 (b= 1.3; 95% CI= 0.5 to 2.0; p= 0.001). Weak preventive subjective norm was affected by weak family support (b= 2.1; 95% CI= 1.3 to 2.8; p<0.001) and smoker peer-group (b= 1.4; 95% CI= 0.6 to 2.1; p<0.001). Cigarette advertisement was affected by cigarette availability (b= 0.7; 95% CI= 0.1 to 1.3; p= 0.028).

Conclusion: Smoking behavior was directly affected  by strong intention and weak perceived behavioral control. Smoking behavior was indirectly affected by weak preventive subjective norm, negative attitude, exposure to cigarette advertisement,  pocket money ≥ Rp.10.000, weak family support, smoker peer-group, and cigarette availability.

Keyword: path analysis, smoking behavior, intention, adolescents.

Correspondence: Ardiansyah Pandayu. Master Program in Public Health, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta. Email: ardiansyahpandayu07@gmail.com. Mobile: +6287864018631.

Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior (2017), 2 (2): 98-111


Aula EL (2010). Stop Smoking (Sekarang atau Tidak Sama Sekali). Yogyakarta: Garailmu.

Azwar S (2013). Sikap Manusia Teori dan Pengukurannya. Edisi 2. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Barmpagianni E, Travlos A, Kalokairinou A, Sachlas A, Zyga S (2013). Investigation of Aggravating Psychosocial Factors on Health and Predictability of Smoking and Alcohol Use in Post Adolescent Students. Health chology Research. 1(2): 15.

Bird Y, Staines OH, Moraros J (2016). Adolescents’ smoking experiences, family structure, parental smoking and socio-economic status in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. International Journal for Equity in Health. 15(29).

Blankers M, Buisman R, Hopman P, Van Gool R, Van Laar M (2016). Modelling Intentions to Provide Smoking Cessation Support Among Mental Health Professionals in The Netherlands. Tobacco Induced Diseases. 14(1): 32.

Davies M, Macdowall W (2006). Health Promotion Theory. New York. Open University Press.

Dereje N, Abazinab S, Girma A (2014). Prevalence and Predictors of Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents of Ethiopia: School Based Cross SectionalSurvey. Journal Child Adolescent Behavior. 3(182): 1-8.

Droomers M, Huang X, Fu W, Yang Y, Li H, Zheng P (2016). Educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking among male smokers in China: a cross-sectional survey on the explanations provided by the theory of planned behaviour. BMJ Open. 6(10).

Ebrahimi H, Sahebihagh MH, Ghofranipour F, Tabrizi JS (2014). Initiation and Continuation of Smoking in Iran: A Qualitative Content Analysis. IJC-BNM. 2(4): 220-230.

Fertman CI, Allensworth DD (2010). Health Promotion Programs. USA: Jossey Bass.

Finigan Carr NM, Cheng TL, Gielen A, Haynie DL, Simons Morton B (2015). Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Aggression and Weapons Carrying in Urban African American Early Adolescent Youth. Health education & behavior. 42(2): 220-230.

Ford A, MacKintosh AM, Bauld L, Moodie C, Hastings G (2016). Adolescents’ responses to the promotion and flavouring of e-cigarettes. Int J Public Health. (61): 215–224.

Ganley BJ, Rosario DI (2013). The smoking attitudes, knowledge, intent, and behaviors of adolescents and young adults: Implications for nursing practice. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice. 3(1).

Gifford H, Tautolo E, Erick S, Hoek J, Gray R, Edwards R (2016). A Qualitative Analysis of Maori And Pacific Smokers Views on Informed Choice and Smoking. BMJ Open.

Gwon, Hyun S, Jeong, Suyong (2016). Factors Influencing Adolescent Life time Smoking and Current Smoking in South Korea: Using data from the 10th (2014) Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web Based Survey. J Korean Acad Nurs. 46(4): 552-561.

Hamdan SR (2015). Pengaruh Peringatan Bahaya Rokok Bergambar pada Intensi Berhenti Merokok. Mimbar. 3(1): 241-250.

Heo J, Oh J, Subramanian SV, Kawachi I (2014). Household and School Level Influences on Smoking Behavior a-mong Korean Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis. Shahab L, ed. PLoS ONE. 9(6).

Hohman ZP, Crano WD, Siegel JT, Alvaro EM (2014). Attitude Ambivalence, Friend Norms, and Adolescent Drug Use. Prev Sci. 15(1): 65-74.

Hughes SK, Hughes K, Atkinson AM, Bellis MA, Smallthwaite L (2010). Smoking behaviours, access to cigarettes and relationships with alcohol in 15 and 16 year old schoolchildren. European Journal of Public Health. 21(1): 8-14.

Joung MJ, Han MA, Park J, Ryu SY (2016). Association between Family and Friend Smoking Status and Adolescent Smoking Behavior and E-Cigarette Use in Korea. International Journal of Environmental Reseach and public Health. 13(12): 1183.

Karimy M, Niknami S, Hidarnia AR, Hajizadeh I (2012). Intention to start cigarette smoking among Iranian male adolescents: usefulness of an extended version of the theory of planned behaviour. Heart Asia. 4(1).

Kemenkes RI (2013a). Riset Kesehatan Dasar Indonesia. Badan Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Jakarta: Kemenkes RI.

Kemenkes RI (2013b). Riset Kesehatan Dasar Dalam Angka Provinsi Jawa Tengah 2013. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan. Jakarta: Kemenkes RI.

Kemenkes RI (2015). InfoDatin: Perilaku Merokok Masyarakat Indonesia. Jakarta: Kemenkes RI.

Kumar V, Talwar R, Roy N, Raut D, Singh S (2014). Psychosocial Determinants of Tobacco Use among School Going Adolescents in Delhi, India. Journal of Addiction.

Mahabee Gittens E, Khoury J, Huang B, Dorn L, Ammerman R (2011). The Protective Influence of Family Bonding on Smoking Initiation in Adolescents by Racial/Ethnic and Age Subgroups. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse.

Mohammadpoorasl A, Nedjat S, Yazdani K, Fakhari A, Foroushani AR, Fotouhi A (2012). Intention to Start Smoking and its Related Factors in Never Smoked Adolescents in Tabriz, 2010. International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 3(12): 880–886.

Park SE, Yoon SN, Yi Y, Cui W, Nam B (2011). Prevalence and risk factors of adolescents smoking: difference between korean and koreanchinese. Asian Nursing Research. 5(3): 189-95.

Prabandari YS, Dewi A (2016). How do Indonesian youth perceive cigarette advertising? A cross-sectional study among Indonesian high school students. Glob Health Action. (9): 30914.

Rachmat M, Thaha RM, Syafar M (2013). Perilaku Merokok Remaja Sekolah Menengah Pertama. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional. 7(11): 502-508.

Scalici F, Schulz PJ (2017). Parents’ and peers’ normative influence on adolescents’ smoking: results from a Swiss-Italian sample of middle schools students. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy.

Shadid HM, Hossain SZ (2013). Understanding Smoking Behaviour among Secondary School Students in Amman, Jordan: A Qualitative Study. J Community Med Health Educ.

Talip T, Murang Z, Kifli N, Naing L (2016b). Systematic Review of Smoking Initiation among Asian Adolescents, 2005-2015: Utilizing the Frameworks of Triadic Influence and Planned Behavior. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 17(7).

Topa G, Moriano JA (2010). Theory of planned behavior and smoking: meta-analysis and SeM model. Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, UNeD, Madrid, Spain. Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation. Dovepress.

WHO (2010). Brief Profile On Gender and Tobacco in South-East Asia Region India. New Delhi: WHO-SEARO.

WHO (2015), Regional Office for South-East Asia. Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS): Indonesia report. New Delhi: WHO-SEARO.

Widiansyah M (2014). Faktor-Faktor Penyebab Perilaku Remaja Perokok Di Desa Sidorejo Kabupaten Penajam Paser Utara. E-Journal Sosiologi. 2(04): 1-12.

Wiium N, Breivik K, Wold B (2006). The Relationship between Smoker Role Models and Intentions to Smoke among Adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 35(4).

Zhong J, Cao S, Gong W, Fei F, Wang M (2016). Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environment. Research and Public Health. 13(465).




How to Cite

Pandayu, A., Murti, B., & -, P. (2017). Effect of Personal Factors, Family Support, Pocket Money, and Peer Group, on Smoking Behavior in Adolescents in Surakarta, Central Java. Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior, 2(2), 98–111. Retrieved from https://thejhpb.com/index.php/thejhpb/article/view/42




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 > >>