Psychological and Social Determinants of HIV: Path Analysis Evidence from Jepara, Central Java


  • Ita Fijanah Puspita Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret
  • Uki Retno Budihastuti Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dr. Moewardi Hospital
  • Vitri Widyaningsih Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret


Background: HIV/AIDS was a global problem as a challenge in health discipline and a very important burden of disease to be addressed. Moreover, it had high mortality. This study aimed to analyze the risk factors for HIV/AIDS infection.

Subjects and Method: This was a case control study conducted in Jepara, Central Java, from April to May 2019. A sample of 200 study subjects was selected by fixed disease sampling. The dependent variable was HIV/AIDS. The independent variables were age, gender, unsafe sex behavior, sexual orientation, frequency of intercourse, injection drug abuse, social capital, perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, perceived threat, self-efficacy, and geographical location. The data were obtained from medical record and questionnaire. The data were analyzed by path analysis.

Results: HIV / AIDS had a direct relationship with the frequency of sexual intercourse (b= 1.23; 95% CI= 0.27 to 2.19; p= 0.012), injecting drug use (b = 2.19; 95% CI= 0.01 to 4.37; p= 0.049), behavior unsafe sex (b= 3.10; 95% CI= 2.21 to 3.99; p <0.001), and sexual orientation (b= 3.69; 95% CI= 1.35 to 6.04; p= 0.002). HIV / AIDS had an indirect relationship with perceptions of threats, gender, geographical location, social capital, perceptions of vulnerability, perception of seriousness, self-efficacy, and age.

Conclusions: HIV / AIDS has a direct relationship with the frequency of sexual relations, sexual orientation, unsafe sexual behavior, and injecting drug use. HIV / AIDS has an indirect relationship with age, gender, perception of vulnerability, perception of seriousness, perception of threats, self-efficacy, social capital, and geographical location.

Keywords: HIV / AIDS, sexual behavior, social capital, path analysis

Correspondence: Ita Fijanah Puspita, Masters Program in Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: Mobile: 081347970482.

Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior (2019), 4(1): 43-54


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How to Cite

Puspita, I. F., Budihastuti, U. R., & Widyaningsih, V. (2019). Psychological and Social Determinants of HIV: Path Analysis Evidence from Jepara, Central Java. Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior, 4(1), 43–54. Retrieved from




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