Meta-Analysis the Effect of School Based Intervention on Smoking in Adolescents
Background: Tobacco is a global problem, in which at least 5 million people die from diseases caused by the consumption of tobacco products such as cigarettes each year, such as cervical cancer, heart disease, gastric ulcers, tuberculosis, kidney failure, pancreas, leukemia, pneumonia, gum and mouth disease as well as lung cancer. This study aims to estimate the magnitude of the effect of School based intervention on cigarette consumption based on the results of a number of previous studies.
Subjects and Method: This research is a systematic study and meta-analysis, with PICO as follows Population = junior high school and high school students, Intervention = School based intervention. Comparison = No School based intervention. Outcome = cigarette consumption. The articles used in this study were obtained from several databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar. This article article was collected for 2 months. The keywords for searching articles are as follows: "School-based intervention" AND tobacco OR smoke OR cigarette AND RCT OR "Randomized Controlled Trial". The articles included in this study are full text articles with a randomized controlled trial study design. Articles were collected using PRISMA flow diagrams. They were analyzed using the Review Manager 5.3 application.
Results: A total of 11 articles reviewed in this meta-analysis study originated from the United States, Sweden, California, Brazil, Germany, Ireland, China, Australia and Indonesia. Studies show that School based intervention has no significant effect on cigarette consumption (Standardized Mean Difference = -0.74; 95% CI = -1.67 to 0.18; p = 0.110).
Conclusion: School based intervention reduces cigarette consumption.
Keywords: School based intervention, tobacco, cigarette consumption
Correspondence: Muhammad Rifqi Azhary. Masters Program In Public Health, Universitas Sebelas Maret. Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Surakarta 57126, Central Java. Email: Rifqiazhary.email@example.com.
Journal of Health Promotion and Behavior (2021), 06(01): 32-44
Blaakman S, Tremblay PJ, Halterman JS, Fagnano M, Borrelli B. (2011). Imple-mentation of a sommunity-based secondhand smoke reduction inter-vention for caregives of urban children with asthma: process evaluation, successes and challenges. Health Educ Res 28(1):141-152.https://doi.-org/10.1093/her/cys070
Cahill K, Stead LF, Lancaster T. (2012). Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation. In Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (2). https://doi.-org/10.1002/14651858.cd006103.pub6
CDC. (2020). Youth and Tobacco Use. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.-gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_-sheets/youth_data/tobacco_use/in-dex.htm
CEBM. (2014). Checklist for the Critical Appraisal of a Controlled Study. 10, 12. Retrieved from http://www.ceb-ma.org/wp-content/uploads/Critical-Appraisal-Questions-for-a-Survey.pdf
Cochrane. (2014). RevMan 5.3 User Guide.
Drope J, Schluger N, Cahn Z, Drope Ja, Hamill S, Islami F, Liber A, et al. (2018). The Tobacco Atlas. Atlanta: American Cancer Society and Vital Strategies. In the American Cancer Society, Inc. www.tobaccoatlas.org.
FCTC. (2005). Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Pasifik, Asia, 87–90.
Giannotta F, Taglianti FV, Galanti MR, Scatigna M, Faggiano F. (2013). Short-Term Mediating Factors og a School-Based Intervention to Prevent Youth Substanse Use in Europe. J Adolesc Health 54(2014):565-573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.10.009
Hodder RK, Freund M, Bowman J, Wolfen-den L, Campbell E, Dray J, Lecatheli-nais C, et al. (2017). Effectiveness of a pragmatic school-based universal resilience intervention in reducing tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use in a population of adolescents: Cluster-randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open, 7(8). https://doi.org/10.-1136/bmjopen-2017-016060.
Islami SU, Prasetya H, Murti B. (2019). Schools have contextual influence on smoking behavior among high school students in Dumai, Riau. J Health Promot Behav. 4(3): 212–223. https://doi.org/10.26911/thejhpb.2019.04.-03.06.
KEMENKES. (2017). Hidup Sehat Tanpa Rokok (Healthy Living Without Smoking). Kementrian Kesehatan Indonesia, ISSN 2442-7659, 06–07.
Lisboa OC, Souza BB, Xavier LEDF, Alme-ida MR, Correa PCRP, Brinker TJ (2019). A smoking prevention pro-gram delivered by medical students to secondary schools in Brazil called “education against tobacco”: rando-mized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res. 21(2): 1-12. https://doi.org/10.-2196/12854.
Muller FR, Krist L, Burger C, Strobele NB, Roll S, Rieckmann N, Muller JN, et al. (2014). Berlin evaluation school tobacco prevention-best, prevention: study design and metodology. BMC Public Health. 14(2014): 871-887. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-871.
Murti B. (2018a). Prinsip dan Metode Riset Epidemiologi (5th ed.) (Principles and Methods of Epidemiological Research (5th ed.)). Program Studi Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Sebelas Maret.
Murti B (2018b). Teori Promosi dan Peri-laku Kesehatan (Promotion Theory and Health Behavior). Program Studi Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat, Program Pascasarjana, Universitas Sebelas Maret.
Sarin SK, Cavallo DA, Cooney JL, Schepis TS, Kong G, Liss TB, Liss AK, et al. (2013) an exploratory randomized controlled trial of a novel high-school-based smoking cessation intervention for adolescent smokers using absti-nence-contingent incentives and cog-nitive behavioral therapy. Drug Alcohol Depend 132(2013): 346-351. http:-//dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.-2013.03.002.
Sridhar OTS, Murthy P, Kumar KVK. (2020). Integrated brief tobacco and alcohol cessation intervention in a primary health-care setting in Karna-taka. Indian J Public Health. 61: 29-34 https://doi.org/10.4103/ijph.IJP-H_235_17.
Sun P, Miyano J, Rohrbach LA, Dent CW, Sussman S. (2007). Short-term effects of project EX-4: a classroom-based smoking prevention and cessation intervention and cessation intervention program. Addict Behav 32 (2017): 342-350. https://doi.org/10.-1016/j.addbeh.2006.05.005.
Tahlil T, Woodman RJ, Coveney J, Ward PR. (2013). The impact of education programs on smoking prevention: a randomized controlled trial among 11 to 14 year olds in Aceh, Indonesia. BMC Public Health 13 (2013): 367-378. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-367
Tahlil T, Woodman RJ, Coveney J, Ward PR. (2015). Six-months follow-up of a cluster randomized trial of school-based smoking prevention education program in Aceh, Indonesia. BMC Public Health. 15 (2015): 1088-1099. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-2428-4.
Thurston A, Dunne L, Kee F, Gildea A, Craig N, Stark P, Lazenbatt A. (2018). A randomized controlled efficacy trial of a smoking prevention programme whit grade 8 student in high schools. Int J Educ Res. page 0883-0355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2018.10.003.
Wen X, Chen W, Gans KM, Colby SM, Lu C, Liang C, Ling W. (2010). Randomized controlled trials two-year effect of a school-based prevention programme on adolescent sigarette smoking in Gungzhou, China: a cluster randomi-zed trial. Int J Epidemiol. 39(1):860-876. Retrieved from https://doi.org/-10.1093/ije/dyq001.
WHO. (2014). About youth and tobacco. WHO. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/tobacco/research/youth/youth/en/.